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THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY             309

by people of every class, then what needs to be known by the
middle classes, and finally the knowledge of special value for real
students. He concluded with an appeal to " the philanthropists
and men of wealth " whom he was addressing for the funds
required for the creation of the Elementary Book and the books
for older scholars, and promised that if support were forthcoming,
he would not only produce the Book but would put his educational
principles into actual operation.

This appeal, backed by diligent canvassing and advertising
on Basedow5 s part, met with an extraordinary response. Money
came pouring in from the most diverse sources until the sub-
scription list had to be closed with a total of fifteen thousand
thalers. Thus encouraged, Basedow immediately set to work,
and in 1770 issued a Book of Method for parents and for people
in general, and, later in the year, the first incomplete Elementary
Book. The entire work, revised and extended to four volumes
with an atlas of one hundred illustrations, appeared in 1774 under
the new title of The Elementary Work. It was an extraordinary
jumble of material, made up of theoretical expositions of the
Method and of articles on all the human and natural sciences
likely to be of use to the pupils; but, in spite of its chaotic
character, it met with general approval. Basedow had now
completed one part of his task: the more difficult remained. He
had still to establish a demonstration school where the children
would be taught in accordance with the principles of the Elemen-
tary Book. Again he appealed to the public for funds, but
whether it was that the tide of educational enthusiasm was now
on the ebb, or that his long delay in producing the Book had lost
him the support of his earlier patrons, the appeal was very coldly
received. Nothing daunted, he opened a school, which he called
the Philanthropinum, in Dessau, with a few pupils towards the
end of 1774. According to his plan there were to be three groups
of pupils : children of wealthy parents who paid their own way,
poor children of good ability taken on special terms to be trained
as teachers, and poor children of inferior ability to be trained for
manual and domestic work. Except the last group, whose work
was mainly practical (only two hours of their day being spent in
study), the pupils were to occupy themselves in mastering the
subjects comprised in the Elementary Book, and were to learn
various handicrafts and physical exercises. In the outcome the